# How to sort a dataframe by multiple column(s)

###### Posted By: Anonymous

I want to sort a data.frame by multiple columns. For example, with the data.frame below I would like to sort by column `z`

(descending) then by column `b`

(ascending):

```
dd <- data.frame(b = factor(c("Hi", "Med", "Hi", "Low"),
levels = c("Low", "Med", "Hi"), ordered = TRUE),
x = c("A", "D", "A", "C"), y = c(8, 3, 9, 9),
z = c(1, 1, 1, 2))
dd
b x y z
1 Hi A 8 1
2 Med D 3 1
3 Hi A 9 1
4 Low C 9 2
```

## Solution

You can use the `order()`

function directly without resorting to add-on tools — see this simpler answer which uses a trick right from the top of the `example(order)`

code:

```
R> dd[with(dd, order(-z, b)), ]
b x y z
4 Low C 9 2
2 Med D 3 1
1 Hi A 8 1
3 Hi A 9 1
```

*Edit some 2+ years later:* It was just asked how to do this by column index. The answer is to simply pass the desired sorting column(s) to the `order()`

function:

```
R> dd[order(-dd[,4], dd[,1]), ]
b x y z
4 Low C 9 2
2 Med D 3 1
1 Hi A 8 1
3 Hi A 9 1
R>
```

rather than using the name of the column (and `with()`

for easier/more direct access).

###### Answered By: Anonymous

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